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verbascum thapsus history

It grows in a wide variety of habitats, but prefers well-lit, disturbed soils, where it can appear soon after the ground receives light, from long-lived seeds that persist in the soil seed bank. of the ecology of plants (including algae), in both aquatic and terrestrial Diese Pflanze wird schon seit langem in der pflanzlichen Heilkunde (Phytotherapie) angewendet. [42], Verbascum thapsus has a wide native range including Europe, northern Africa and Asia, from the Azores and Canary Islands east to western China, north to the British Isles, Scandinavia and Siberia, and south to the Himalayas. [9] Useful insects are also hosted by great mullein, including predatory mites of the genera Galendromus, Typhlodromus and Amblyseius, the minute pirate bug Orius tristicolor[67] and the mullein plant bug (Campylomma verbasci). [74] Leaves were smoked to attempt to treat lung ailments, a tradition that in America was rapidly transmitted to Native American peoples. [10], Seeds germinate in spring and summer. The 1630 number in Mitch may be a typo: the beginning of the 18th century is cited in other sources. This drug cures deafness and all symptoms related to cold as well. Specific epithet honors the ancient village of Thapsus (now in ruins) located near Carthage in modern day Tunisia. [12] Ground herbicides, like tebuthiuron, are also effective, but recreate bare ground and require repeated application to prevent regrowth. 2014 am Kemnader See in Bochum (© B. Ehses) 2010 auf Bahngelände in Witten (© A. Jagel) Blüte (© A. Jagel) Staubblätter, Griffel (© A. Jagel) Learn the translation for ‘Verbascum’ in LEO’s English ⇔ German dictionary. that looks like it woofy, it mentions fruit? Books to Borrow. It belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family, and its origin is mainly European although it is also natural from Asia, Africa, and North America. Mullein, any of the 360 species of the genus Verbascum (family Scrophulariaceae), large biennial or perennial herbs native to northern temperate regions, especially eastern Eurasia. After flowering the entire plant usually dies at the end of its second year,[10] but some individuals, especially in the northern parts of the range, require a longer growth period and flower in their third year. [56] Because of this, and because the plant is an extremely prolific seed bearer (each plant produces hundreds of capsules, each containing up to 700+ seeds,[19] with a total up to 180,000[9][10] or 240,000[12] seeds), it remains in the soil seed bank for extended periods of time, and can sprout from apparently bare ground,[10] or shortly after forest fires long after previous plants have died. [11], For the purpose of botanical nomenclature, Verbascum thapsus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 Species Plantarum. [30][31][32] In North America, "common mullein" is used[33][34] while western United States residents commonly refer to mullein as "cowboy toilet paper". [2] It has been used to make dyes and torches. [9][10][12] Visitors include halictid bees and hoverflies. ), the Great Mullein, is a widely distributed plant, being found all over Europe and in temperate Asia as far as the Himalayas, and in North America is exceedingly abundant as a naturalized weed in the eastern States. There are three usually recognized subspecies: In all subspecies but the type, the lower stamens are also hairy. Further details are available at This ability to grow in a wide range of habitats has been linked to strong phenotype variation rather than adaptation capacities. Quiets nervous, and bronchial, and urinary irritation, and cough. is published six times a year. Annual genotypes are favoured only in the long southern growing season and where survival is uncertain in the second year because of drought or competition. p. 223) analyzed the flow- ers of Verbascum Thapsus, and obtained a yellow volatile oil, a fatty ...ii. Overview; Gallery; Names; Classification; Records; Literature; Sequences; Data Partners + Online Resources. History has shown that Verbascum thapsus provides cough relief related to various . [27] In subsp. Discussion in Working Party on European Unionmonographs and European Union list (MLWP) September 2007 October 2007 . crassifolium also differs from the type in having slightly larger flowers, which measure 15–30 mm wide, whereas in the type they are 12–20 mm in diameter. There is substantial intraspecific variation in time of reproduction in most monocarpic plants. [11] The hair on lower stamens may serve to provide footholds for visitors. [12] Its population pattern typically consists of an ephemeral adult population followed by a long period of dormancy as seeds. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Common mullein, Verbascum thapsus, is a European plant that has made its way all over the world. [78] The German Commission E describes uses of the plant for respiratory infections. [3][4] The leaves are large, up to 50 cm long. Subsp. An infusion of the root is also used to treat athlete's foot. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Verbascum. Catarrhs, and colds, with periodical prosopalgia. [61] Additionally, deer and elk eat the leaves. [48], In the United States it was imported very early in the 18th[note 3] century and cultivated for its medicinal and piscicide properties. © 1984 British Ecological Society agricultural land use in forests may be visible both. Those that germinate in autumn produce plants that overwinter if they are large enough, while rosettes less than 15 cm (6 in) across die in winter. [6][note 1] The plant produces small, ovoid (6 mm, 0.24 in) capsules that split open by way of two valves, each capsule containing large numbers of minute, brown seeds less than 1 mm (0.04 in)[12] in size, marked with longitudinal ridges. Both experimental and theoretical studies are accepted, as Verbascum thapsus, commonly known as mullein, has been used in various types of medicines for a variety of conditions for thousands of years. ecosystems. It is a member of the Scrophulariaceae, the snapdragon family. From treating the flu to ear infections to diarrhea, this plant has a long history in medicine. [52], Great mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower. They are also used as emollient applications to hard tumours and in pulmonary complaints in cattle hence one of its popular names is Bullock’s Lung-wort. [67] It is also a potential reservoir of the cucumber mosaic virus, Erysiphum cichoraceum (the cucurbit powdery mildew) and Texas root rot. [16], At the time, no type specimen was specified, as the practice only arose later, in the 19th century. Seed dispersion requires the stem to be moved by wind or animal movement; 75% of the seeds fall within 1 m of the parent plant, and 93% fall within 5 m.[10], Megachilid bees of the genus Anthidium use the hair (amongst that of various woolly plants) in making their nests. Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L. #3 VESTH) has an ancient relationship with man. asperulum (Scrophulariaceae) two new records for the flora of Iran", "List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004)", "Common Mullein—the Roadside Torch Parade", "An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding the Biology of Invasions: Local Adaptation and General-Purpose Genotypes in the Weed Verbascum thapsus", "Habitat requirements of central European bees and the problems of partial habitats", "Maintenance Behavior of the American Goldfinch", "Numbers and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), in a central Washington fruit-growing region", "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", webpage with pictures of tall specimens,, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 02:04. The species' chromosome number is 2n = 36. [62], Seed of Verbascum thapsus has been recorded from part of the Cromer Forest Bed series and at West Wittering in Sussex from some parts of the Ipswichian interglacial layers. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. The vision of the British Ecological Society is to advance ecology and make it count. (5) Annual genotypes occurred only in the southern part of the range, at both wet and dry sites. All Rights Reserved. However, the populations are long persistent as a dormant pool of seeds buried in the soil. [10] Effective (when used with a surfactant) contact herbicides include glyphosate,[9][12] triclopyr[9] and sulfurometuron-methyl. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions "Mullein" itself derives from the French word for "soft". [35][36], In the 19th century it had well over 40 different common names in English alone. Verbascum thapsus Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Scrophulariaceae Genus: Verbascum Species: V. thapsus Binomial name Verbascum thapsus Linnaeus Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and [37] Vernacular names include innumerable references to the plant's hairiness: "woolly mullein", "velvet mullein" or "blanket mullein",[32][38] "beggar's blanket", "Moses' blanket", "poor man's blanket", "Our Lady's blanket" or "old man's blanket",[31][34][39] and "feltwort", and so on ("flannel" is another common generic name). crassifolium were originally described as species. [66], Despite not being an agricultural weed in itself, it hosts a number of insects and diseases, including both pests and beneficial insects. The information rendered in the . This work describes life history variation in Verbascum thapsus L. with latitude. Eaton went so far as to write: "When botanists are so infatuated with wild speculation, as to tell us the mullein was introduced, they give our youngest pupils occasion to sneer at their teachers. Mullein (Verbascum thapsus ) also known as great mullein, is a dramatic biennial herb of the Scrophulariaceae or figwort family. Question Author. [76] All preparations meant to be drunk have to be finely filtered to eliminate the irritating hairs. The second-year plants normally produce a single unbranched stem, usually 1–2 m tall. Ecology. [5], It has been introduced throughout the temperate world, and is established as a weed in Australia, New Zealand, tropical Asia, La Réunion, North America, Hawaii, Chile, Hispaniola and Argentina. need to convey strong and ecological messages that advance our understanding Select the purchase Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.[1]. [10] This dormancy is linked to starch degradation activated by low temperatures in the root, and gibberellin application bypasses this requirement. Journal of Ecology. In more northerly climates, biennial and triennial plants are favoured because they can produce more seed in the short but predictable growing season. The plant produces a shallow taproot. Under better growing conditions, some individuals flower in the first year. [72], Control of the plant, when desired, is best managed via mechanical means, such as hand pulling and hoeing, preferably followed by sowing of native plants. It is met with throughout Britain (except in the extreme north of Scotland) and also in Ireland and the Channel Islands, on hedge-banks, by roadsides and on waste … Edward G. Reekie, in Plant Resource Allocation, 1997. Texas plants also flowered for a longer period and their capsules dehisced later. It also hosts many insects, some of which can be harmful to other plants. Thapsus was founded by the Phoenicians.It served as a waypoint on the trade routes between the Strait of Gibraltar and Phoenicia and as a market for the inland products of the area. (6) Longer average periods before reproduction were negatively correlated with the percentage of the ground surface covered by vegetation. [10], Phytochemicals in Verbascum thapsus flowers and leaves include saponins, polysaccharides, mucilage, flavonoids, tannins, iridoid and lignin glycosides, and essential oils. [1], V. thapsus is a dicotyledonous plant that produces a rosette of leaves in its first year of growth. [31][34][41] The name "velvet dock" or "mullein dock" is also recorded, where "dock" is a British name applied to any broad-leaved plant. It is a hairy biennial plant that can grow to 2 m tall or more. [note 2] The species had previously been designated as type species for Verbascum. I think they mean the word fruit botanically (fleshy seed case) and not as in anything edible by humans 12:37 Fri 18th Sep 2020. tamborine. Although commonly used in traditional medicine, there are no approved drugs from this plant. Verbascum thapsus is the scientific name of the plant popularly known as mullein or common mullein, and less common as gordolobo. [50] In Canada, it is most common in the Maritime Provinces as well as southern Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia, with scattered populations in between. 177 1753. The dried stems may persist into the following spring or even the next summer. fungi or bacteria, providing they focus on the ecology of the plants. Geographic subdivisions for Verbascum thapsus: CA-FP, n SNE, MP : MAP CONTROLS 1. A molyhos ökörfarkkóró (Verbascum thapsus) a görvélyfűfélék (Scrophulariaceae) családjába tartozó növényfaj, amelynek természetes élőhelyei Európában, Észak-Afrikában és Ázsiában vannak. wet to very dry habitats) as well as different successional stages. JSTOR provides a digital archive of the print version of Journal of These make the plant a potential reservoir for overwintering pests. 3. nigrum). Of these, the most common is V. × semialbum Chaub. Verbascum thapsus (great mullein or common mullein) is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia. Verbascum ist ein homöopathisches Mittel und der lateinische Name der Königskerze. and V. × thapsi L. (syn. Papers [19] Flowers are self-fecundating and protogynous (with female parts maturing first),[19] and will self-pollinate if they have not been pollinated by insects during the day. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. [1], A species of mullein in the family Scrophulariaceae native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia, The lectotypification is usually attributed to Arthur Huber-Morath (1971). need to integrate history into forest ecology is further. (4) Delay of flowering until the third year was most common among northern genotypes and was a response to unfavourable growth conditions. Biomass partitioning, life history, and population dynamics of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.). are accepted, as well as studies of the interactions between plants and animals, It is a common weedy plant that spreads by prolifically producing seeds, and has become invasive in temperate world regions. The journal History. Burning is ineffective, as it only creates new bare areas for seedlings to occupy. They are thick and decurrent, with much variation in leaf shape between the upper and lower leaves on the stem, ranging from oblong to oblanceolate, and reaching sizes up to 50 cm long and 14 cm across (19 inches long and 5 inches wide). [73], Although long used in herbal medicine, no high-quality clinical research has been conducted on Verbascum thapsus as of 2018, and there are no drugs manufactured from its components. org/wik i/Verba scum_th apsus. Pl. The BES's many activities include the publication of a range of scientific literature, including five internationally renowned journals, the organisation and sponsorship of a wide variety of meetings, the funding of numerous grant schemes, education work and policy work. The electronic version of Journal of Ecology [3] Due to its morphological variation, V. thapsus has had a great many subspecies described. Although individuals are easy to remove by hand, populations are difficult to eliminate permanently. The family name of this European native may have derived from the word scrofula, a disease that is now understood to be a form of tuberculosis . ", In book 25, Pliny describes "two principal kinds [of verbascum]" thought to be. 178 p. Abstract. (× V. issues of general interest to ecologists. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. (V. thapsiforme Schrad) and V. phlomoides L., flos . While year of flowering and size are linked to the environment, most other characteristics appear to be genetic. Since Huber-Morath's groups are not taxonomical, Mürbeck's treatment is the most current one available, as no study has yet sought to apply genetic or molecular data extensively to the genus. (1) Twenty-four natural populations of the monocarpic perennial Verbascum thapsus were mapped and studied over 3 years. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. Pain (mainly ear) and deafness – This medicine cures pain mainly in the ears and pain that continues to the throat and neck. European reference books call it "great mullein". 72(3): 897-912. The five stamens are of two types, with the three upper stamens being shorter, their filaments covered by yellow or whitish hairs, and having smaller anthers, while the lower two stamens have glabrous filaments and larger anthers. The common mullein (V. thapsus) grows 0.6 to 2 metres (2 to 7 feet) tall, has a single, unbranched stem with large, Verbascum thapsus was used medicinally by some Native American tribes. This plant was introduced in the mid eighteenth century as the source of a fish poison. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-26) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. Studies of plant communities, populations or individual species Verbascum thapsus L. Great Mullein species Accepted Name authority: UKSI Establishment means: Native. [63], Because it cannot compete with established plants, great mullein is no longer considered a serious agricultural weed and is easily crowded out in cultivation,[19] except in areas where vegetation is sparse to begin with, such as Californian semi-desertic areas of the eastern Sierra Nevada. [9] It is now found commonly in all the states. emphasized (Bu ¨ rgi and Gimmi 2007). [9][10][12] G. tetrum and Cucullia verbasci usually have little effect on V. thapsus populations as a whole. 102 sabadilla, ii. 105 viride, ii. [10] After flowering and seed release, the stem and fruits usually persist in winter,[11] drying into dark brown, stiff structures of densely packed, ovoid-shaped, and dry seed capsules. The History of the British Flora, A Factual Basis for Phytogeography by, "Element Stewardship Abstract for Verbascum thapsus", "Verbascum oreophilum var. The genus name Verbascum comes from the Latin word barbascum which means "bearded", in reference to the hairy stamen filaments of some species. [9], Flowers are pentamerous with (usually) five stamen, a five-lobed calyx tube and a five-petalled corolla, the latter bright yellow and an 1.5–3 cm (0.59–1.18 in) wide. This item is part of JSTOR collection [80][31][75], Mullein may be cultivated as an ornamental plant. verbascum thapsus https:/ /en.wik ipedia. Diodorus Siculus write that Agathocles of Syracuse conquered the city.. During his civil war, Julius Caesar defeated Metellus Scipio and the Numidian king Juba I at the costly 46 BC Battle of Thapsus. [5][6] This cover is particularly thick on the leaves, giving them a silvery appearance. [3] The flowering stem is solid and 2–2.5 cm (nearly an inch) across, and occasionally branched just below the inflorescence,[4] usually following damage. Most of the pests found were western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), Lygus species such as the tarnished plant bug (L. lineolaris), and various spider mites from the family Tetranychidae. They include mullein thrips (Haplothrips verbasci),[67] Gymnaetron tetrum (whose larva consume the seeds) and the mullein moth (Cucullia verbasci). The Society was established in 1913 and has approximately 4,000 members worldwide, and membership is open to all with an interest in ecology. Search the history of over 446 billion web pages on the Internet. respiratory illnesses, including asthma and tuberculosis. [58] Other bird species have been reported to consume the leaves (Hawaiian goose)[59] or flowers (palila),[60] or to use the plant as a source when foraging for insects (white-headed woodpecker). Common mullein is a biennial native to Eurasia and Africa that develops a basal rosette of felt-like leaves the first year, then bolts to heights of six feet or more. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. [9][82], Due to its weedy capacities, the plant, unlike other species of the genus (such as V. phoeniceum), is not often cultivated. (2) Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site for only a few growing seasons after disturbance. Featured texts All Books All Texts latest This Just In Smithsonian Libraries FEDLINK (US) Genealogy Lincoln Collection. For example, in the “biennial” Verbascum thapsus, reproduction may actually take place in the first, second, or third year of growth depending on latitude and successional status of the habitat (Reinartz, 1984a, b). Although this plant is a recent arrival to North America, Native Americans used the ground seeds of this plant as a paralytic fish poison due to their high levels of rotenone. A white-flowered form, V. thapsus f. candicans, is known to occur. [69394] oreophilum and Verbascum cheiranthifolium var. Background: Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide. of case studies. Kleinblütige Königskerze - Verbascum thapsus (Scrophulariaceae) Verbascum blattaria Verbascum densiflorum Verbascum lychnites Verbascum nigrum Verbascum phlomoides Verbascum speciosum. This gradient also included environmental extremes (e.g. [17][20] Introduced American populations show much less variation. In Mürbeck's classification, V. thapsus is placed in section Bothrospermae subsect. are descriptive or historical accounts, although these must offer insights into Journal of Ecology publishes original research papers on all aspects [19], The seeds maintain their germinative powers for decades, up to a hundred years, according to some studies. Animals rarely graze it because of its irritating hairs, and liquid herbicides require surfactants to be effective, as the hair causes water to roll off the plant, much like the lotus effect. Most population differences in length of these periods were maintained in the common garden. Reinartz, James A. Dissertation. [80] Native Americans and American colonists lined their shoes with leaves from the plant to keep out the cold. [2] Dioscorides first recommended the plant 2000 years ago, believing it useful as a folk medicine for pulmonary diseases. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. [5][43][44] In northern Europe, it grows from sea level up to 1,850 m altitude,[4] while in China it grows at 1,400–3,200 m altitude. Question Author. [19], The taxonomy of Verbascum has not undergone any significant revision since Svanve Mürbeck's monographies in the 1930s, with the exception of the work of Arthur Huber-Morath, who used informal group in organizing the genus for the florae of Iran and Turkey to account for many intermediate species. [70][71] A number of pest Lepidoptera species, including the stalk borer (Papaipema nebris) and gray hairstreak (Strymon melinus), also use V. thapsus as a host plant. [8][9] They become smaller higher up the stem,[3][4] and less strongly decurrent down the stem. Verbascum depending on nomenclatural choices) alongside species such as Verbascum nigrum (black or dark mullein), Verbascum lychnitis (white mullein) and Verbascum sinuatum (wavy-leaved mullein).[21][22][23][24]. [7] It grows best in dry, sandy or gravelly soils, although it can grow in a variety of habitats, including banksides, meadows, roadsides, forest clearings and pastures. [55], A given flower is open only for a single day, opening before dawn and closing in the afternoon. [12] Goats and chickens have also been proposed to control mullein. Other cultures use the leaves as wicks. Durham, NC: Duke University. 12:27 Fri 18th Sep 2020. tamborine. Initial assessment . [10][12] Although not an agricultural threat, its presence can be very difficult completely to eradicate and is especially problematic in overgrazed pastures. [19][51], Great mullein most frequently grows as a colonist of bare and disturbed soil, usually on sandy or chalky ones. [7], On flowering plants, the leaves are alternately arranged up the stem. [31][53][74][75] The seeds contain several compounds (saponins, glycosides, coumarin, rotenone) that are toxic to fish, and have been widely used as piscicide for fishing.

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