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geography of canada

The great plains consist of a large, flat, and treeless area of land. Canada For Students 8th - Higher Ed Standards. The region is known for its extensive mineral reserves.[49]. There are also some French-speaking communities in other portions of Canada, mostly on the east coast, but the majority of the rest of the country speaks English. Three per cent of Canada's land area is covered by permanent pastures. This watershed irrigates the agriculturally important areas of inner British Columbia (such as the Okanagan and Kootenay valleys), and is used to produce hydroelectricity. The bulk of oil and gas production occurs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (mostly light green), which stretches from southwestern Manitoba to northeastern British Columbia. To the west of their headwaters, across the Rocky Mountain Trench, is a second belt of mountains, the Columbia Mountains, comprising the Selkirk, Purcell, Monashee and Cariboo Mountains sub-ranges. There are pillow lavas in the Northwest Territories that are about 2.6 billion years old and are preserved in the Cameron River Volcanic Belt. Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably the Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, the Mount Cayley massif, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. In 1869, Canada continued to grow when it bought land from the Hudson’s Bay Company. Canada has a vast geography that occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest. The main biomes of Canada are: Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories. [citation needed]. The shield also encloses an area of wetlands, the Hudson Bay lowlands. Extensively developed in British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and Labrador, the many dams have long provided a clean, dependable source of energy. Canada's geographic proximity to the United States has historically bound the two countries together in the political world as well. The second branch is the legislative, a bicameral parliament consisting of the Senate and House of Commons. [63][62], The easternmost point is Cape Spear, Newfoundland (47°31′N 52°37′W) 47°31′23″N 52°37′08″W / 47.523°N 52.619°W / 47.523; -52.619 (Cape Spear, Newfoundland). 13 U.S. states share a border with Canada: The Origins of British Columbia in Canada, Origins of the Saskatchewan Province of Canada, Canada's Population Estimates, Third Quarter 2018, M.A., Geography, California State University - East Bay, B.A., English and Geography, California State University - Sacramento. The Milk River originates in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, then flows into Alberta, then returns into the United States, where it is drained by the Missouri River. Canada is the largest country in North America. The majority of Canada's southern border runs straight along the 49th parallel (49 degrees north latitude), while the border along and east of the Great Lakes is jagged. The provinces with the largest forestry industries are British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. For historical political boundaries of Canada, see, History of the petroleum industry in Canada, List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories, "Scientists shocked by Arctic permafrost thawing 70 years sooner than predicted", "Canada Facts: 25 Interesting and Fun Facts – not only for Kids", "The Atlas of Canada – Physical Components of Watersheds", "The High Subarctic Forest-Tundra of Northwestern Canada: Position, Width, and Vegetation Gradients in Relation to Climate", "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated", "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification", "Weather Data: Canada, Saskatchewan, Midale, 1937, July", "Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 Station Data", "Ottawa Macdonald Cartier International Airport", "Quebec/Jean Lesage International Airport", "Saskatoon Diefenbaker International Airport", "Winnipeg Richardson International Airport", "Canada's Worst Natural Disasters of All Time", "Population, urban and rural, by province and territory (Canada)", "Satellite imagery moves Hans Island boundary: report", "3-D Magnetic Imaging using Conjugate Gradients: Temagami anomaly", "The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada", "Canada warming up twice as fast as rest of the world, and it's 'irreversible': report", The Barren Lands Collection and Expedition maps, University of Toronto, The Barren Lands Collection, University of Toronto, World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geography_of_Canada&oldid=991880123, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 08:02. Canada has 7,200 square kilometres (2,800 mi2) of irrigated land (1993 estimate). There are millions of lakes in Canada. The leader of Canada is called the Prime Minister. [41] The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. Volcanism has also occurred in the Canadian Shield. George Hunter. The Appalachian mountain range extends from Alabama through the Gaspé Peninsula and the Atlantic Provinces, creating rolling hills indented by river valleys. Canada’s national motto, A Mari usque ad Mare, or “ From Sea to Sea, ” captures the vastness of the nation, as the country quite literally stretches from the Pacific Ocean on its western coast to the … CANADA Geography SS6G5: The student will locate select features of Canada: Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Hudson Bay, St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, the Canadian Shield, and the Rocky Mountains 3. Geography. This land was later divided into different provinces, one of which was Manitoba. The dry, temperate climate of the Okanagan Valley in south central British Columbia provides ideal conditions for fruit growing and a flourishing wine industry; the semi-arid belt of the Southern Interior also includes the Fraser Canyon, and Thompson, Nicola, Similkameen, Shuswap and Boundary regions and fruit-growing is common in these areas also, and also in the West Kootenay. [54], The Atlantic watershed drains the entirety of the Atlantic provinces (parts of the Quebec-Labrador border are fixed at the Atlantic Ocean-Arctic Ocean continental divide), most of inhabited Quebec and large parts of southern Ontario. It is a part of the Pacific Northwest and is Canada's third most populated province behind Ontario and Quebec. It contains over 150 volcanic belts (now deformed and eroded down to nearly flat plains) that range from 600 million to 2.8 billion years old. The Appalachian mountains (more specifically the Chic-Choc Mountains, Notre Dame, and Long Range Mountains) are an old and eroded range of mountains, approximately 380 million years in age. Download Geography of Canada App 1.0.0 for iPad & iPhone free online at AppPure. Farther west is the rugged Canadian Cordillera, stretching from the Yukon Territory into British Columbia and Alberta. Western Canada has many volcanoes and is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a system of volcanoes found around the margins of the Pacific Ocean. Canada's position between the Soviet Union (now Russia) and the U.S. was strategically important during the Cold War since the route over the North Pole and Canada was the fastest route by air between the two countries and the most direct route for intercontinental ballistic missiles. The first is the executive, which consists of the head of state, who is represented by a governor general, and the prime minister, who is considered the head of government. Winters, however, are normally long and harsh in most of the country. The southernmost point of the Canadian mainland is Point Pelee, Ontario 41°54′32″N 82°30′32″W / 41.909°N 82.509°W / 41.909; -82.509 (Point Pelee, Ontario). North, near the Alaskan border, Haida Gwaii lies across Hecate Strait from the North Coast region and to its north, across Dixon Entrance from Southeast Alaska. Canada shares a 5,525-mile- (8,890-km-) long border with the United States (including Alaska)—the longest border in the world not patrolled by military forces—and the overwhelming majority of its population lives within 185 miles (300 km) of the international boundary. Immediately west of the Columbia Mountains is a large and rugged Interior Plateau, encompassing the Chilcotin and Cariboo regions in central British Columbia (the Fraser Plateau), the Nechako Plateau further north, and also the Thompson Plateau in the south. The Chilcotin Group is believed to have formed as a result of back-arc extension behind the Cascadia subduction zone. In this geography of Canada lesson plan, students locate features such as rivers, lakes, cities, provinces, and more. West of them is the large Yukon Plateau and, west of that, the Yukon Ranges and Saint Elias Mountains, which include Canada's and British Columbia's highest summits, Mount Saint Elias in Kluane National Park and Mount Fairweather in the Tatshenshini-Alsek region. To the west of the Canadian Shield are the central plains, or prairies. There are six cities in Canada that have a population of over 1 … [59] Metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impact agricultural and forest productivity. Total Size: 9,984,670 square km. Identifying and exploring Canada's six regions - Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Ontario, Western Canada, British Columbia, and the Territorial North - author Robert Bone guides students through the basic physical, historical, cultural, social, and economic features of each region, nurturing an appreciation of this country's amazing diversity. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Canada is the second-largest country by total area in the world after Russia, covering an area of 9,984,670 sq km (3,855,100 sq miles). It is the largest lake in the world that naturally drains in two directions. The headwaters of the Yukon River, the largest and longest of the rivers on the Pacific Slope, lie in northern British Columbia at Atlin and Teslin Lakes. It remained this size until 1949 when Newfoundland became the 10th province. European settlement did not begin in Canada until the 1500s. 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